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 a simple url encoder/decoder


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system library:BIO_connect:Connection refused:../crypto/bio/bio_sock2.c

I got the strange error message 
system library:BIO_connect:Connection refused:../crypto/bio/bio_sock2.c
on executing 
openssl s_client -starttls smtp -connect
when testing sendmail smtp tls with an Let's Encrypt SSL certificate.

If you got the same error message, ensure that
  1. sendmail is running (on mail server / relay host)
    test it with init rc script 
      /etc/init.d/sendmail status
    or simple by process listing tools, like 
      pstree | grep sendmaail
      pidof sendmail-mta
      ps fauxwww | grep sendmail
    and network server socket is bound 
      netstat -avn 2>&1 |less
    or fuser and your sendmail port
      fuser -v -n tcp 25
    or various variants of lsof, like
      lsof -i TCP:25

  2. sendmail is well configured (on mail server / relay host)
    this will take a little bit too long for that article
    in my case it was a wrong IPv6 address in

    DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Family=inet6, Name=MTA-v6, Port=smtp, Addr=2600:1f14:1d6d:f202:8d53:fc57:c45d:6590')dnl
  3. mail server is reachable from outside 
    test it with 
     telnet [mailserver] [port]
    or brutal way with a network scanner, like nmap
      nmap -p 25,465,587 [mailserver]

    if mailserver is not reachable from outside, 
    then you must lookup on server and on client firewall rules, e.g
      iptables -t filter --list
      iptables -6 -t filter --list
You could also simply run strace to see, what happens:
  strace openssl s_client -starttls smtp -connect

strace openssl s_client -starttls smtp -connect [mailserver] [port]


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bereits top (vielleicht sogar etwas over the top):


html uft-8 symbol generation shell script

I wrote tonight a short uft-8 html escapes generating shell script,
see script generated results here:
# generates uft-8 symbol html reference



printf "<html>\n<head><title>utf-8 symbol></title></head>\n<body>\n\t<h1>UTF-8 Symbols</h1>\n\t<div><span>\n" > $outtext

while [ $shx -lt 16384 ] ; do

        modZero=$(echo "$shx % $modHex" | bc)
        if [ $modZero -eq 0 ] ; then
                printf "\n<h2>hex x%x ~ dec %d</h2>\n" $shx $shx >> $outtext
                printf "\n<pre>symbol\thex x%x \tdecimal %d \t.\n" $shx $shx >> $outtext

        printf "&#x%x;\t&#x%x;\t&#%d;\t.\n" $shx $shx $shx  >> $outtext

        modFF=$(echo "$shx % $modHex" | bc)
        if [ $modFF -eq 255 ] ; then
                printf "</pre>\n" >> $outtext

    shx=$(echo "$shx + 1" | bc);

printf "\n\t<hr />\n\t</span></div></body></html>\n" >> $outtext

see full script at